Step 1: Combine dry ingredients in a medium sized bowl. Stir. Add butter, and squeeze the butter and flour mixture together with your fingers until there are tiny chunks of butter throughout.
Step 2: Mix in the ice water with a fork, being careful not to add too much. The dough is going to look pretty rough, but shouldn't fall apart when squished between your fingers.
Step 3: Dust both hands with flour, gather and press dough togeth. Form into a disk and wrap in plastic wrap. Chill for one hour. Remove chilled dough from the refrigerator. If it is hard, let it sit for a few minutes. Place a sheet of wax paper on the counter and dust lightly with flour. Be careful about the amount of flour you're using when rolling out a pie crust, because too much will make your crust dry.
Step 4: Roll from the center of your dough and away from you, turning your dough after each time. When finished, the dough should be about 14 inches in diameter and 1/8" thick.
Step 5: Transfer the dough to a tart pan and gently fit it to the pan without stretching the dough (if you do it will shrink while cooking). Trim overhanging dough, leaving an inch or so to fold under and press into scalloped edge if you so desire. Poke bottom and sides with a fork and chill for an additional hour.
Step 6: Apple Filling and Caramel Sauce:
Place apples in a mixing bowl, drizzle with lemon juice and toss. Place in refrigerator until you are ready to assemble the tart. Once you are ready, begin placing the apples against the edge of the tart, points facing up. Keep going until the whole tart is filled, you will want to pack them tightly as they seem to shrink up while cooking.
Step 7: Make the caramel; Place the remaining ingredients in a saucepan over medium heat, whisking constantly. Continue cooking (and whisking) until sugar dissolves, begins bubbling, and reduces to a thicker, sticky consistency. Pour the Caramel over the apples in your tart.
Bake the tart in a preheated oven a 375 for 1 hour and 15 minutes. Remove and cool before serving to allow all of the juices to set.